Since the above may sound like a bunch of malarkey for busy teachers in public schools, following are some takeaways for putting all this theory into practice.
1. Use Learning Taxonomies
Use learning taxonomies -- and not just one -- to illuminate understanding more clearly. Seek out multiple resources to guide your instructional design. This should include assessment. Move beyond "pass or fail," or even "A-F," to "can define and apply, but has trouble analyzing."
2. Use Concept Maps
Use concept maps, and use them a lot. Have students map, chart, diagram or otherwise visually represent their own learning pathways and changes in their own understanding. Find ways for them to express what they do and don't understand, where they started, where they are, and where they might be going.
3. Use a Variety of Assessment Forms
If this is the only way you personalize learning, give it a shot. Assess student performances, writing, concept maps, drawings, interviews, projects, or maybe quick Instagram videos followed by short written responses. You can even allow students to choose their own assessment as you challenge them to prove not just if they get it, but how.
4. Build Metacognition into Units
Prime the pump by assigning students quick writing prompts about their own thinking. Model what metacognition looks/sounds/feels like. Have students share their thinking. Allow them to express themselves and their thinking away from the pressure of the classroom and the expectations of verbal eloquence. Add it to rubrics.
5. Use Digital Portfolios
Not only should you set students up with these online repositories for digital artifacts, you should frequently review what goes into them. Analyze the changes you see in student work, including content knowledge.
6. Connect Students to Networks
As students connect to networks, the learning process will plug them in, not just to one teacher, or 25 classmates, or eight texts, but to something much larger -- and more able to interact with students organically. Direct them toward communities and resources that can help move them toward knowing and understanding.